Types Of Chocolate
In the Unites States, a set of federal regulations, called the Standards of Identity, govern the composition and nomenclature of chocolate. Below are some of the standards as they apply to the various types of chocolate.
Milk Chocolate: Must contain a minimum of 10 percent of chocolate liquor and at least 12 percent milk solids. It is made up of cocoa butter, milk, sweeteners and flavorings that are added to chocolate liquor.
Dark Chocolate: Must contain a minimum of 35 percent chocolate liquor, less than 12 percent milk solids and an average fat content of 27 percent. It is also known as bitter chocolate. It is made up of chocolate liquor and additional sweeteners and cocoa butter.
Coverture Chocolate: Is made up of a minimum of 32 percent cocoa butter. Due to the higher percentage of cocoa butter, this chocolate is easy to work with and is used to create the thin glossy chocolate coating on fruit dipped in chocolate or in fancy chocolate preparation. Do not confuse with "Coating" chocolate that comes in wafers.
Unsweetened Chocolate: Also called chocolate liquor, unsweetened chocolate is the finely ground roasted cocoa nibs. It can be natural or dutch (alkalized).
White Chocolate: White chocolate is somewhat of a misnomer. In the United States, in order to be legally called 'chocolate' a product must contain cocoa solids. White chocolate does not contain these solids, which leaves it a smooth ivory or beige color. Real white chocolate is primarily cocoa butter, sugar, milk and vanilla. There are some products on the market that call themselves white chocolate, but are made with vegetable oils instead of cocoa butter. Check the label to avoid these cheap imitations.